Computers Basics



Just getting started with technology? Here are courses designed especially for adults who are new to technology. They provide a solid introduction to computers and will help prepare you for the more advanced courses we offer.
Introductory Classes
Quick Keyboarding
Quick Keyboarding - Advanced
Getting Started with Computers
Computer & Internet Safety for Adults & Kids
How Computers Work: Inside and Out
Windows
Windows Introduction
Windows System Tools

How to Use Computer Management on the Local Computer

Computer Management Overview
Computer Management is a collection of Windows administrative tools that you can use to manage a local or remote computer. The tools are organized into a single console, which makes it easy to view administrative properties and to gain access to the tools that are necessary to perform your computer-management tasks.

The Computer Management Console
The Computer Management console consists of a window divided into two panes. The left pane contains the console tree; the right pane contains details. When you click an item in the console tree, information about that item is displayed in the details pane. The information that is displayed is specific to the item that you select.

The administrative tools in Computer Management are grouped into the following three categories in the console tree: • System Tools
• Storage
• Services and Applications



Each category includes several tools or services.
System Tools• Event Viewer

Use the Event Viewer tool to manage and view events that are recorded in the Application, Security, and System logs. You can monitor the logs to track security events and to identify possible software, hardware, and system problems.
• Shared Folders

Use the Shared Folders tool to view connections and resource in use on the computer. You can create, view, and manage shares, view open files and sessions, and close files and disconnect sessions.
• Local Users and Groups

Use the Local Users and Groups tool to create and manage your local user accounts and groups. Local Users and Groups is available only in Windows XP Professional.
• Performance Logs and Alerts

Use the Performance Logs and Alerts tool to configure performance logs and alerts to monitor and collect data about your computer's performance.
• Device Manager

Use Device Manager to view the hardware devices installed in your computer, update device drivers, modify hardware settings, and troubleshoot device conflicts.

Storage• Removable Storage

Use the Removable Storage tool to track your removable storage media and manage the libraries, or data-storage systems, that contain them.
• Disk Defragmenter

Use the Disk Defragmenter tool to analyze and defragment volumes on your hard disks.
• Disk Management

Use the Disk Management tool to perform disk-related tasks such as converting disks or creating and formatting volumes. Disk Management helps you manage your hard disks, and the partitions or volumes that they contain.

Services and Applications• Services

Use Services to manage services on local and remote computers. You can start, stop, pause, resume, or disable a service.
• WMI Control

Use WMI Control to configure and manage the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) service.
• Indexing Service

Use Indexing Service to manage the Indexing service, and to create and configure additional catalogs to store index information.

NOTE: The actual set of tools and services that is listed in Computer Management depends on the services that are installed on the host computer.


 
How to Use Computer Management on the Local Computer


NOTE: You must be logged on as Administrator or as a member of the Administrators group view and modify most properties and perform most computer-management tasks.

To start and use Computer Management on the local computer: 1. Click Start, and then click Control Panel. Click Performance and Maintenance, click Administrative Tools, and then double-click Computer Management.

The Computer Management window for the local computer is displayed. "Computer Management (Local)" is displayed at the root of the console tree.
2. In the console tree, expand System Tools, Storage, or Services and Applications to view the tools and services in each of these containers.
3. Click the item that you want (for example, Event Viewer) to use the tool, and then view the information that is associated with it.


 
How to Use Computer Management on a Remote Computer

NOTE: You must be logged on as Administrator or as a member of the Administrators group to view and modify most properties and perform most computer-management tasks.

To connect to and use Computer Management on another computer: 1. Click Start, and then click Control Panel. Click Performance and Maintenance, click Administrative Tools, and then double-click Computer Management.
2. Right-click Computer Management (Local), and then click Connect to another computer.
3. Click Another Computer, and then type the name of the computer that you want to manage remotely, or click Browse to locate the computer. Click OK and then click OK to return to the Computer Management window. The Computer Management window of the remote computer is displayed. The name of the remote computer is displayed at the root of the console tree.
4. In the console tree, expand System Tools, Storage, or Services and Applications to view the tools and services in each of these containers.
5. Click the item that you want (for example, Event Viewer) to use the tool, and then view the information that is associated with it.


How to Use Help in Computer Management

To use Computer Management Help or to use the Help files for any of the individual administrative tools that are contained in Computer Management: 1. Start Computer Management.
2. Use either of the following steps: • In the console tree, right-click the item that you want (for example, Computer Management or Device Manager), and then click Help.
• Click the item in the console tree (for example, Device Manager or Computer Management), and then click Help on the Action menu.

What is the most efficient way to find information about computer security?

It is generally agreed upon by those who spend a lot of time online that Google (»www.google.com/) is the grandmaster of all search tools. While doing pretty much anything in Google will get you decent results, there are a few things you can do to make your experience even better.

Tips:
Word order matters. Put the most pertinent search terms first.

Repetition matters. Entering a particular search term multiple times will, at the very least, change the order of your results. In general, the term with multiple instances (and therefore more weight) will be more prevalent in the search results.

Case does not matter. Don't spend extra effort on capitalizing -- it's ignored by Google completely.

Use quotes when looking for exact phrases; otherwise, use multiple separate words.
"opportunities multiply as they are seized"

The Google Toolbar (»toolbar.google.com/) is an invaluable tool that grants you Google's powers without having to go to the site each time you need to find something. Also, when Google toolbar is installed, highlight any text on a webpage (double-click it if it's a single word) and right click it. Select "Google Search," and Google will search for that text and return you the results.
Using the advanced features of the toolbar requires that you send information about the pages you are viewing to Google. Be sure to disable the advanced features if this is an issue for you.
Do not include words like "a," "to" and "the" in your queries; they are omitted by Google because of how common they are, and they don't help your search in any way. If you really want to use one, add a '+' (plus) to it, and it will force Google to include it in the query. Also, when using quotes to search for phrases, these words are not omitted; the entire phrase you entered within the quotes is searched for.

By default, Google uses the Boolean AND operator when performing searches when given multiple arguments. In other words, if you enter two words into Google and hit enter, it will search for pages that have both of the words in them, not one or the other.

You can use 'OR' to search instead of the default 'AND' by putting an 'OR' between search terms.
You can also use '|' (the pipe character) as OR.
house OR car
cat | dog

When you perform a query and get your results back, the blue bar located under the search tabs will say, "Searched _ pages for *your_terms." If *your_term* was a word with a definition at dictionary.com, the word *your_term* will be a link to the definition of the word at dictionary.com.

You can group search terms using both the default 'AND' and the 'OR' operations together.
cats (pets OR wild)
plants green (ocean | land)

It is possible to remove results that contain certain words by using the '-' (minus) sign. This allows you to filter out results that you know don't pertain to what you are looking for.
ford mustang -horse

You can use an '*' (asterisk) as a full-word wildcard in a phrase lookup. This is helpful when you want to fill in gaps in a search phrase with any full word.
"rule of *"

Can use 'intitle:' to find things that exist only in the title of web pages.
intitle:technology

Can use 'inurl:' to find things that exist only in the url of a web page.
inurl:education

Can use 'intext:' to find things that exist only in the body of a web page.
intext:"sleep disorders"

Can use 'inanchor:' to find things that exist only in the anchor of a web page. An anchor is the text associated with a link that helps to identify it.
inanchor:daycare OR babysitter

Can use 'site:' to isolate a search to just a certain website or domain. This, by the way, is a far better way to search the Microsoft site than using their built-in search feature.
site:microsoft.com "securing windows 98" (good luck)

Can use 'link:' to find all pages that link to a given site:
link:slashdot.org

Can use 'cache:' to find the cached version of a certain site. A cache is a snapshot copy of the site that is helpful if the site is offline or changed from when you saw it last.
cache:www.cnn.com

Can use 'filetype:' to find various file types that exist on the Internet. This is very powerful when combined with other search options.
filetype:ppt "nursing education"

Can use 'related:' to find pages that are related in type/classification to the input given. For example, 'related:www.slashdot.org' will yield hits like www.userfriendly.org because they are both "geek-oriented."
related:www.securityfocus.com

Can use 'info:' to get all Google-related information (cache, stocks, links, related, etc.) about a given site.
info:www.microsoft.com

Can use 'phonebook:' to find phone number and address information about people and businesses. This very powerful feature will find phone numbers when given a name and state abbreviation. To get more specific, just add the city to the query as well. There are three different phonebook related searches available - phonebook, rphonebook and bphonebook. The first searches the whole phonebook directory, the second only residential entries and the third only businesses.
phonebook:smith ca
rphonebook:smith fremont
bphonebook:round table, fremont

Efficient computer tools: what would you put on the list?

What tools do you use to be efficient while working on a computer, be it online or not? Things like del.icio.us, dropload, winzip, phpbboards, group blogs/wikis, etc. Are there any books for general fine tuning of already computer-familiar users? What about seminars?

I was thinking about everyday things people do to speed up their work - like, not everyone uses alt+tab, for example, to switch between app windows. I was also thinking about how to travel as lightly as possible business wise - so, if all your data & tools are stored online, it's just you and the suitcase. I know this is probably a cloudy question, but I know you guys can help me clarify. :D

Teletraffic engineering in broadband networks

Teletraffic engineering is a well-understood discipline in the traditional voice network, where traffic patterns are established, growth rates can be predicted, and vast amounts of detailed historical data are available for analysis. However, for modern broadband networks, the teletraffic engineering methodologies used for voice networks no longer suffice. Various aspects relating to teletraffic engineering in broadband networks are discussed in this article.

Firstly, the nature of broadband traffic is different from that of traditional voice networks. Many of the methodologies developed for traditional networks were based on the nature of voice calls, and are therefore not applicable to broadband networks. The nature of broadband traffic (broadband traffic characteristics) is discussed in the following sub-section.

The inherent nature of broadband networks is also different from that of traditional voice networks. Broadband networks have:

* high speeds,
* small cell sizes (in ATM networks), and
* limited information in the header.

These factors make teletraffic engineering in broadband networks more difficult than in traditional voice networks. A few more factors that further complicate teletraffic engineering in broadband networks are:

* A wide range of applications with diverse Quality of Service (QoS) requirements must be catered for.
* Much of the traffic (e.g., voice, video) is not amendable to flow control.
* The feedback within the network is “slow”.
* There are a large variety of traffic patterns (see long-tail traffic).

Network Centrics



Network Centrics is the emerging discipline of applying and enhancing networking and computing concepts and implementation technologies in a variety of social, business, content distribution, and communication domains involving interactions amongst the domain entities. Network Centrics acts as a catalytic agent resulting in significant improvements in the definition, modeling, comprehension, performance, and effectivity associated with these interactions. This topic has gained importance because of increasing connectivity at individual, corporate, and government levels. Network Centrics is supported by a sustained growth of Internet in conjunction with continued advances in efficient computing algorithms, cost- solutions, and high-performance options that can now be leveraged in a variety of domains.

Overview

Network Centrics focuses on the central role of integrated networking and computing as a premise, facilitator, and accelerator for a rapid, sustained, cost-effective and managed improvement of interactions among the various entities constituting a domain. It formalizes, automates, and extends the fundamental concept of network effect that describe the underlying connectivity among large number of entities in a wide variety of fields ranging from social groups, electrical transmission systems, spread of pandemics, metabolic pathways, gene expression, evolutionary behavior, and various Internet based large applications. Closely associated with such fundamental network connectivity is the popular concept of six degrees of separation (that all human beings are on the average only six acquaintances away from any other human being in the world) that is now part of common vernacular.

Improving Interactions among the Domain Entities

Underlying connectivity among the entities which are spatially or temporally separated from other entities is severely inefficient, thus limiting the network effect for the associated interactions. The network effect can be improved by using an automated information infrastructure as a substratum for bridging geographical and temporal distances in a fast, reliable, and secure fashion. Networking infrastructures have evolved from smoke and light signals, telegraphs, telephones, mobile telephony, to Internet applications leveraging key advances in electro-mechanical transducers, semiconductor, magnetic data storage, software programmed computers, wireless communication, and algorithms. Although technologies such as computer hardware and software have been critical in the growth of digital data and telephony networks, the two broad fields of networking and computing have evolved independently, thus limiting their potential in certain domains. Network Centrics consolidates the principles, tools, and technologies of the networking and computing fields for a unified approach towards improving domain interactions.

The meteoric rise of social networking web sites such as My Space and Facebook has demonstrated the power of networking (fast connections for large number of users) and computing technologies (databases, search algorithms, matching algorithms, user interface). Such an infrastructure serves as a potent catalyst which can improve connectivity and improve associated interactions with several orders of magnitude. Another application of the Network Centrics concepts is exemplified by a mature and scalable trading platform provided by Internet auction sites such as eBay that efficiently interconnects the buyers and sellers across geographical and temporal boundaries. This Network Centric platform requires efficient implementation of auction algorithms, databases for storing goods and current bids and email software for automatic notifications used to improve the auction process all working over a large area data network. An extensive use of both computing and networking technologies enables a reliable, transparent, secure and well defined way of millions of interactions on a daily basis for a large number of participants interested in finding and buying specific physical goods on the one hand and sellers on the other who have profit making objectives. This is in stark contrast with the local bazaars of yesteryears with at most hundreds of people participating in handful of auctions in a session.

Besides these recent Internet phenomena, now part of the day-to-day life in all continents and most countries, there is also a profound change in the role of networking for national defense. Many large countries, led by United States, have unequivocally stipulated that the current defense strategy should be radically transformed with information networking being the central substratum for command, control, intelligence, sensing, and reconnaissance. The scope of such network-centric warfare goes far beyond policy, directives, training, and logistics to actual remote real-time sensing and shooting. This involves a robust, secure and comprehensive integration among all sensor integration, data collection, data storage, information analysis, decision making, and weapon system activation tasks across large geographical distances and multiple services and coalition partners. In fact, the term Network Centricity itself has emerged from the set of many policy documents, starting with Adm. William Owens introduction of the term “system of systems” followed by Network Centric Warfare as discussed by Vice Admiral Arthur Cebrowski and John Gartska, and detailed in the book “Network Centric Warfare”). Netcentric approach is a now a key facet of the strategic transformation of US defense forces with information superiority.

Extending Basic Networking Concepts

Network Centrics extends the fundamental concept of domain networking that exists, though in a constrained fashion, independent of any automation provided by information (computing and networking) infrastructure. This extension is initiated by adding specific networking concepts such as addressing, routing, multicast, persistence, robustness, and assurance. This is further enriched by leveraging computing concepts such as discovery, mediation and search, collaboration, filtering and data mining algorithms with associated automated implementations using computer and software technologies. Adequate sensor and actuator components are used to interface the domain entities with the underlying automation infrastructure. The use of service level agreements for interactions ensures quality of service, for a specific price, and associates information assurance for privacy, authenticity, and non-repudiation. These technical concepts are well understood and widely implemented with a large number of technologies as epitomized by existing information automation infrastructures (networks). This includes the Internet with TCP/IP and HTTP family of protocols and the mobile communications devices based on GSM and CDMA standards providing voice, email, paging, and other applications. The implementation of these infrastructural networks has been possible with extensive research and development over the past four decades in packet networking, mobile cellular architectures, computing algorithms, point and click user interfaces, data processing techniques and Internet web applications. Though landline phone networks have been around for more than a hundred years and at least initially played a major role in accessing Internet with dialup connections, their importance is diminishing rapidly because of their inherent efficiency, cost, and flexibility issues.

Studying and organizing the interactions among domain entities can be facilitated by judiciously applying one or more networking concepts such as queuing theory and computer simulation techniques. For any performance improvement, however, automated technologies such as wide area communication, algorithmic manipulation, and persistent storage of data in transit, bring us from basic and simple networking to the field of Network Centrics. The use of appropriate sensor technologies which can transform many chemical, biological, physical, and situational data into electrical signals facilitate linking with data collection networks for further information aggregation, processing, knowledge mining, and decision making. Today it is mostly the computer and network technologies manifested in well known products such as computer servers, PC, web browsers, database management system, email, paging, data mining tools, TCP/IP protocols, routers, optical communication links, mobile PDA, etc. that are deployed for a network centric performance boosting for interactions occurring over large distances and time scales. Besides these widely deployed computing and data network technologies, there are other emergent technologies that are also relevant for Network Centric improvement of domain interactions.

Disadvantages of Computer


It’s very common today to use the computer. However protecting our selves from the people who want to attack our PC’s is very important to us. There are some people; they are called self-Hackers, who can steal your identity information or personal information by going through your Internet connection. Even if you clear your browser history the information can be retrieved in seconds. There are a lot of disadvantages and advantages to using the computer in these days; computers make our lives easy, but we see that we buy expensive equipment for this easier life. There are a lot of disadvantages found with computer in these days.

New Computer Inventions


New inventions are everyday occurrences in the computer world. As a matter of fact, a month ago, Stealth Ideas Inc., introduced the StealthSurfer II ID Protect. It is a miniature flash drive that lets you surf the Internet anonymously from your computer using an encrypted mode. It comes with memory of 256 megabytes to two-gigabytes and prices start at $99. For those who dabble in the arts, the DigiMemo-692 Digital Notepad enables you to record sketches with ink and paper and then syncronize your notes into your PC using any handwriting reorganization software.

Handheld devices such as PDA or Pocket PC is best for note sketching and it can be synchronized into your PC as a digital copy. The problem of the handheld is its screen input limitations and the screen protector needs to be replaced frequently. DigiMemo 692 Digital Notepad is a breakthrough to all these limitations which is able to 'record' your sketches with ink and ordinary paper. You can easily synchronize your notes into your PC and it is compatible with most of the handwriting reorganization software. This handy device will record your notes, ideas and sketches without the need to scan, and it comes with ink cartridge, a digital pen and software. It also comes with a USB cable that is compatible with WIN 2000 and XP.

The Microsoft Xbox 360 is one of the latest inventions of video games. Video game lovers everywhere are rejoicing the arrival of the new system. The newest Xbox is still a gamer's dream, but it is also being marketed as a media center. Not only can the system be used for playing video games, but it can also be used to play DVDs, CDs and MP3s. Digital cameras can be hooked up to it, as well as mp3 players and even personal computers.

Patenting computer and related inventions come under the intellectual property rights of different countries, where the ownership and copy rights are reserved to the person or organization who invented the product. But in the United States, computer hardware or software invention are deemed patentable only if the invention is vital to a particular task or process. In short, patents are not given to software or even hardware, that are extensions to existing computer technology or if it's just a method of doing business.

One of the new computer inventions is patented by IBM and this is a tiny hard drive the size of a fifty cent piece. This small chip like thing can store up to 340 MB of data and will be very useful in mobile devices, digital cameras, music players, etc.

computers



Nobody thought 20 years ago that the computer would change our lives. It’s amazing how computers can change it. These days, the computer is the most important thing in this life; computer has became a daily thing for the human being. Computers makes our lives easy. In the past the life was kind of hard; no computer, that means a lot of hand work, a lot of wasted time. For example, in the past if you wanted to take some money from the bank, you had to go stand in a long line in a branch and wait to take some money out or deposit money into your account. When the computers came, life definitely changed; it became easier;in a few seconds you can get what you want.

Basic Hardware Components

All networks are made up of basic hardware building blocks to interconnect network nodes, such as Network Interface Cards (NICs), Bridges, Hubs, Switches, and Routers. In addition, some method of connecting these building blocks is required, usually in the form of galvanic cable (most commonly Category 5 cable). Less common are microwave links (as in IEEE 802.11) or optical cable ("optical fiber").


Network Interface Cards
Main article: Network card

A network card, network adapter or NIC (network interface card) is a piece of computer hardware designed to allow computers to communicate over a computer network. It provides physical access to a networking medium and often provides a low-level addressing system through the use of MAC addresses. It allows users to connect to each other either by using cables or wirelessly.


Repeaters

Main article: Repeater

A repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it at a higher level or higher power, or onto the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation.

Because repeaters work with the actual physical signal, and do not attempt to interpret the data being transmitted, they operate on the Physical layer, the first layer of the OSI model.



Hubs

Main article: Network hub

A hub contains multiple ports. When a packet arrives at one port, it is copied to all the ports of the hub. When the packets are copied, the destination address in the frame does not change to a broadcast address. It does this in a rudimentary way, it simply copies the data to all of the Nodes connected to the hub. [5]

Bridges
Main article: Network bridge

A network bridge connects multiple network segments at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Bridges do not promiscuously copy traffic to all ports, as hubs do. but learns which MAC addresses are reachable through specific ports. Once the bridge associates a port and an address, it will send traffic for that address only to that port. Bridges do send broadcasts to all ports except the one on which the broadcast was received.

Bridges learn the association of ports and addresses by examining the source address of frames that it sees on various ports. Once a frame arrives through a port, its source address is stored and the bridge assumes that MAC address is associated with that port. The first time that a previously unknown destination address is seen, the bridge will forward the frame to all ports other than the one on which the frame arrived.

Bridges come in three basic types:
Local bridges: Directly connect local area networks (LANs)
Remote bridges: Can be used to create a wide area network (WAN) link between LANs. Remote bridges, where the connecting link is slower than the end networks, largely have been replaced by routers.
Wireless bridges: Can be used to join LANs or connect remote stations to LANs.


Switches
Main article: Network switch

A switch is a device that does switching, that is it forwards and filters OSI layer two datagrams (chunk of data communication) between ports (connected cables) based on the Mac-Addresses in the packets.[6] This is distinct from a hub in that it only forwards the datagrams to the ports involved in the communications rather than all ports connected. Strictly speaking, a switch is not capable of routing traffic based on IP address (layer 3) which is necessary for communicating between network segments or within a large or complex LAN. Some switches are capable of routing based on IP addresses but are still called switches as a marketing term. A switch normally has numerous ports with the intention that most or all of the network be connected directly to a switch, or another switch that is in turn connected to a switch. [7]

"Switches" is a marketing term that encompasses routers and bridges, as well as devices that may distribute traffic on load or by application content (e.g., a Web URL identifier). Switches may operate at one or more OSI layers, including physical, data link, network, or transport (i.e., end-to-end). A device that operates simultaneously at more than one of these layers is called a multilayer switch.

Overemphasizing the ill-defined term "switch" often leads to confusion when first trying to understand networking. Many experienced network designers and operators recommend starting with the logic of devices dealing with only one protocol level, not all of which are covered by OSI. Multilayer device selection is an advanced topic that may lead to selecting particular implementations, but multilayer switching is simply not a real-world design concept.




Routers
Main article: Router

Routers are the networking device that forward data packets along networks by using headers and forwarding tables to determine the best path to forward the packets. Routers work at the network layer of the TCP/IP model or layer 3 of the OSI model. Routers also provide interconnectivity between like and unlike media (RFC 1812) This is accomplished by examining the Header of a data packet, and making a decision on the next hop to which it should be sent (RFC 1812) They use preconfigured static routes, status of their hardware interfaces, and routing protocols to select the best route between any two subnets. A router is connected to at least two networks, commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISP's network. Some DSL and cable modems, for home use, have been integrated with routers to allow multiple home computers to access the Internet.

Computer Networks




A computer network is an interconnection of a group of computers. Networks may be classified by what is called the network layer at which they operate according to basic reference models considered as standards in the industry such as the four-layer Internet Protocol Suite model. While the seven-layer Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model is better known in academia, the majority of networks use the Internet Protocol Suite (IP) as their network model.

By scale:

Computer networks may be classified according to the scale: Personal area network (PAN), Local Area Network (LAN), Campus Area Network (CAN), Metropolitan area network (MAN), or Wide area network (WAN). As Ethernet increasingly is the standard interface to networks, these distinctions are more important to the network administrator than the end user. Network administrators may have to tune the network, based on delay that derives from distance, to achieve the desired Quality of Service (QoS). The primary difference in the networks is the size.

Controller Area Networks are a special niche, as in control of a vehicle's engine, a boat's electronics, or a set of factory robots

By connection method

Computer networks can also be classified according to the hardware technology that is used to connect the individual devices in the network such as Optical fiber, Ethernet, Wireless LAN, HomePNA, or Power line communication.

Ethernets use physical wiring to connect devices. Often, they employ the use of hubs, switches, bridges, and routers.

Wireless LAN technology is built to connect devices without wiring. These devices use a radio frequency to connect.

By functional relationship (Network Architectures)

Computer networks may be classified according to the functional relationships which exist between the elements of the network, e.g., Active Networking, Client-server and Peer-to-peer (workgroup) architectures.

By network topology

Main article: Network Topology

Computer networks may be classified according to the network topology upon which the network is based, such as Bus network, Star network, Ring network, Mesh network, Star-bus network, Tree or Hierarchical topology network, etc.

Network Topology signifies the way in which intelligent devices in the network see their logical relations to one another. The use of the term "logical" here is significant. That is, network topology is independent of the "physical" layout of the network. Even if networked computers are physically placed in a linear arrangement, if they are connected via a hub, the network has a Star topology, rather than a Bus Topology. In this regard the visual and operational characteristics of a network are distinct; the logical network topology is not necessarily the same as the physical layout.


By protocol

Computer networks may be classified according to the communications protocol that is being used on the network. See the articles on List of network protocol stacks and List of network protocols for more information. For a development of the foundations of protocol design see Srikant 2004 [1] and Meyn 2007

Introduction to Network Types

LAN, WAN and Other Area Networks

One way to categorize the different types of computer network designs is by their scope or scale. For historical reasons, the networking industry refers to nearly every type of design as some kind of area network. Common examples of area network types are:

1. LAN - Local Area Network
2. WLAN - Wireless Local Area Network
3. WAN - Wide Area Network
4. MAN - Metropolitan Area Network
5. SAN - Storage Area Network, System Area Network, Server Area Network, or sometimes Small Area Network
6. CAN - Campus Area Network, Controller Area Network, or sometimes Cluster Area Network
7. PAN - Personal Area Network
8. DAN - Desk Area Network

LAN and WAN were the original categories of area networks, while the others have gradually emerged over many years of technology evolution.

Note that these network types are a separate concept from network topologies such as bus, ring and star.
See also - Introduction to Network Topologies
LAN - Local Area Network
A LAN connects network devices over a relatively short distance. A networked office building, school, or home usually contains a single LAN, though sometimes one building will contain a few small LANs (perhaps one per room), and occasionally a LAN will span a group of nearby buildings. In TCP/IP networking, a LAN is often but not always implemented as a single IP subnet.

In addition to operating in a limited space, LANs are also typically owned, controlled, and managed by a single person or organization. They also tend to use certain connectivity technologies, primarily Ethernet and Token Ring.
WAN - Wide Area Network
As the term implies, a WAN spans a large physical distance. The Internet is the largest WAN, spanning the Earth.

A WAN is a geographically-dispersed collection of LANs. A network device called a router connects LANs to a WAN. In IP networking, the router maintains both a LAN address and a WAN address.

A WAN differs from a LAN in several important ways. Most WANs (like the Internet) are not owned by any one organization but rather exist under collective or distributed ownership and management. WANs tend to use technology like ATM, Frame Relay and X.25 for connectivity over the longer distances.
LAN, WAN and Home Networking
Residences typically employ one LAN and connect to the Internet WAN via an Internet Service Provider (ISP) using a broadband modem. The ISP provides a WAN IP address to the modem, and all of the computers on the home network use LAN (so-called private) IP addresses. All computers on the home LAN can communicate directly with each other but must go through a central gateway, typically a broadband router, to reach the ISP.
Other Types of Area Networks
While LAN and WAN are by far the most popular network types mentioned, you may also commonly see references to these others:
Wireless Local Area Network - a LAN based on WiFi wireless network technology
Metropolitan Area Network - a network spanning a physical area larger than a LAN but smaller than a WAN, such as a city. A MAN is typically owned an operated by a single entity such as a government body or large corporation.
Campus Area Network - a network spanning multiple LANs but smaller than a MAN, such as on a university or local business campus.
Storage Area Network - connects servers to data storage devices through a technology like Fibre Channel.
System Area Network - links high-performance computers with high-speed connections in a cluster configuration. Also known as Cluster Area Network.


In detail

Personal Area Network (PAN)

A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices close to one person. Some examples of devices that may be used in a PAN are printers, fax machines, telephones, PDAs or scanners. The reach of a PAN is typically within about 20-30 feet (approximately 6-9 Meters). PANs can be used for communication among the individual devices (intrapersonal communication), or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet (an uplink).

Personal area networks may be wired with computer buses such as USB[3] and FireWire. A wireless personal area network (WPAN) can also be made possible with network technologies such as IrDA and Bluetooth.



Local Area Network (LAN)

A network covering a small geographic area, like a home, office, or building. Current LANs are most likely to be based on Ethernet technology. For example, a library will have a wired or wireless LAN for users to interconnect local devices (e.g., printers and servers) connect to the internet. All of the PCs in the library are connected by category 5 (Cat5) cable, running the IEEE 802.3 protocol through a system of interconnection devices and eventually connect to the internet. The cables to the servers are on Cat 5e enhanced cable, which will support IEEE 802.3 at 1 Gbps.

The staff computers (bright green) can get to the color printer, checkout records, and the academic network and the Internet. All user computers can get to the Internet and the card catalog. Each workgroup can get to its local printer. Note that the printers are not accessible from outside their workgroup.
Typical library network, in a branching tree topology and controlled access to resources

All interconnected devices must understand the network layer (layer 3), because they are handling multiple subnets (the different colors). Those inside the library, which have only 10/100 Mbps Ethernet connections to the user device and a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the central router, could be called "layer 3 switches" because they only have Ethernet interfaces and must understand IP. It would be more correct to call them access routers, where the router at the top is a distribution router that connects to the Internet and academic networks' customer access routers.

The staff have a VoIP network that also connects to both the Internet and the academic network. They could have paths to the central library system telephone switch, via the academic network. Since voice must have the highest priority, it is on the pink network. The VoIP protocols used, such as RSVP, are virtual circuits rather than connectionless forwarding paths.

Depending on the circumstance, the computers in the network might be connected using cables and hubs. Other networks might be connected strictly wirelessly. It depends on the number of PCs that you are trying to connect, the physical layout of your workspace, and the various needs of network. Not shown in this diagram, for example, is a wireless workstation used when shelving books.

The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to WANs (wide area networks), include their much higher data transfer rates, smaller geographic range, and lack of a need for leased telecommunication lines. Current Ethernet or other IEEE 802.3 LAN technologies operate at speeds up to 10 Gbit/s. This is the data transfer rate. IEEE has projects investigating the standardization of 100 Gbit/s, and possibly 40 Gbit/s. Inverse multiplexing is commonly used to build a faster aggregate from slower physical streams, such as bringing 4 Gbit/s aggregate stream into a computer or network element with four 1 Gbit/s interfaces.


Campus Area Network (CAN)


Main article: Campus Area Network

A network that connects two or more LANs but that is limited to a specific and contiguous geographical area such as a college campus, industrial complex, or a military base. A CAN, may be considered a type of MAN (metropolitan area network), but is generally limited to an area that is smaller than a typical MAN.

This term is most often used to discuss the implementation of networks for a contiguous area. For Ethernet based networks in the past, when layer 2 switching (i.e., bridging (networking) was cheaper than routing, campuses were good candidates for layer 2 networks, until they grew to very large size. Today, a campus may use a mixture of routing and bridging. The network elements used, called "campus switches", tend to be optimized to have many Ethernet-family (i.e., IEEE 802.3) interfaces rather than an arbitrary mixture of Ethernet and WAN interfaces.

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
Main article: Metropolitan Area Network

A Metropolitan Area Network is a network that connects two or more Local Area Networks or Campus Area Networks together but does not extend beyond the boundaries of the immediate town, city, or metropolitan area. Multiple routers, switches & hubs are connected to create a MAN.


Wide Area Network (WAN)
Main article: Wide Area Network

A WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area (i.e. one city to another and one country to another country) and that often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies. WAN technologies generally function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: the physical layer, the data link layer, and the network layer.


Global Area Network (GAN)
Main article: Global Area Network

Global area networks (GAN) specifications are in development by several groups, and there is no common definition. In general, however, a GAN is a model for supporting mobile communications across an arbitrary number of wireless LANs, satellite coverage areas, etc. The key challenge in mobile communications is "handing off" the user communications from one local coverage area to the next. In IEEE Project 802, this involves a succession of terrestrial Wireless local area networks (WLAN) [4]. INMARSAT has defined a satellite-based Broadband Global Area Network (BGAN).

IEEE mobility efforts focus on the data link layer and make assumptions about the media. Mobile IP is a network layer technique, developed by the IETF, which is independent of the media type and can run over different media while still keeping the connection.


Internetwork
Main article: Internetwork

Two or more networks or network segments connected using devices that operate at layer 3 (the 'network' layer) of the OSI Basic Reference Model, such as a router. Any interconnection among or between public, private, commercial, industrial, or governmental networks may also be defined as an internetwork.

In modern practice, the interconnected networks use the Internet Protocol. There are at least three variants of internetwork, depending on who administers and who participates in them:
Intranet
Extranet
"The" Internet

Intranets and extranets may or may not have connections to the Internet. If connected to the Internet, the intranet or extranet is normally protected from being accessed from the Internet without proper authorization. The Internet itself is not considered to be a part of the intranet or extranet, although the Internet may serve as a portal for access to portions of an extranet.



Intranet
Main article: Intranet

An intranet is a set of interconnected networks, using the Internet Protocol and uses IP-based tools such as web browsers, that is under the control of a single administrative entity. That administrative entity closes the intranet to the rest of the world, and allows only specific users. Most commonly, an intranet is the internal network of a company or other enterprise.


Extranet
Main article: Extranet

An extranet is a network or internetwork that is limited in scope to a single organization or entity but which also has limited connections to the networks of one or more other usually, but not necessarily, trusted organizations or entities (e.g. a company's customers may be given access to some part of its intranet creating in this way an extranet, while at the same time the customers may not be considered 'trusted' from a security standpoint). Technically, an extranet may also be categorized as a CAN, MAN, WAN, or other type of network, although, by definition, an extranet cannot consist of a single LAN; it must have at least one connection with an external network.


Internet
Main article: Internet

A specific internetwork , consisting of a worldwide interconnection of governmental, academic, public, and private networks based upon the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) developed by ARPA of the U.S. Department of Defense – also home to the World Wide Web (WWW) and referred to as the 'Internet' with a capital 'I' to distinguish it from other generic internetworks.

Participants in the Internet, or their service providers, use IP Addresses obtained from address registries that control assignments. Service providers and large enterprises also exchange information on the reachability of their address ranges through the BGP Border Gateway Protocol.

PHP String

Strings in PHP

String variables are used for values that contains character strings.

In this tutorial we are going to look at some of the most common functions and operators used to manipulate strings in PHP.

After we create a string we can manipulate it. A string can be used directly in a function or it can be stored in a variable.

Below, the PHP script assigns the string "Hello World" to a string variable called $txt



The Concatenation Operator

There is only one string operator in PHP.

The concatenation operator (.) is used to put two string values together.

To concatenate two variables together, use the dot (.) operator:



If we look at the code above you see that we used the concatenation operator two times. This is because we had to insert a third string.

Between the two string variables we added a string with a single character, an empty space, to separate the two variables.

PHP Variables

Variables in PHP

Variables are used for storing a values, like text strings, numbers or arrays.

When a variable is set it can be used over and over again in your script

All variables in PHP start with a $ sign symbol.

The correct way of setting a variable in PHP:$var_name = value;


New PHP programmers often forget the $ sign at the beginning of the variable. In that case it will not work.

PHP is a Loosely Typed Language

In PHP a variable does not need to be declared before being set.

In the example above, you see that you do not have to tell PHP which data type the variable is.

PHP automatically converts the variable to the correct data type, depending on how they are set.

In a strongly typed programming language, you have to declare (define) the type and name of the variable before using it.

In PHP the variable is declared automatically when you use it.


Variable Naming Rules
A variable name must start with a letter or an underscore "_"
A variable name can only contain alpha-numeric characters and underscores (a-Z, 0-9, and _ )
A variable name should not contain spaces. If a variable name is more than one word, it should be separated with underscore ($my_string), or with capitalization ($myString)

PHP Syntax

You cannot view the PHP source code by selecting "View source" in the browser - you will only see the output from the PHP file, which is plain HTML. This is because the scripts are executed on the server before the result is sent back to the browser.


Basic PHP Syntax

A PHP scripting block always starts with . A PHP scripting block can be placed anywhere in the document.

On servers with shorthand support enabled you can start a scripting block with .

However, for maximum compatibility, we recommend that you use the standard form (?>


A PHP file normally contains HTML tags, just like an HTML file, and some PHP scripting code.

What Are Software Engineering Metrics?


Metrics are units of measurement. The term "metrics" is also frequently used to mean a set of specific measurements taken on a particular item or process. Software engineering metrics are units of measurement that are used to characterize:

software engineering products, e.g., designs, source code, and test cases,

software engineering processes, e.g., the activities of analysis, designing, and coding, and

software engineering people, e.g., the efficiency of an individual tester, or the productivity of an individual designer.

If used properly, software engineering metrics can allow us to:

quantitatively define success and failure, and/or the degree of success or failure, for a product, a process, or a person,

identify and quantify improvement, lack of improvement, or degradation in our products, processes, and people,

make meaningful and useful managerial and technical decisions,

identify trends, and

make quantified and meaningful estimates.

Over the years, I have noticed some common trends among software engineering metrics. Here are some observations:

A single software engineering metric in isolation is seldom useful. However, for a particular process, product, or person, 3 to 5 well-chosen metrics seems to be a practical upper limit, i.e., additional metrics (above 5) do not usually provide a significant return on investment.

Although multiple metrics must be gathered, the most useful set of metrics for a given person, process, or product may not be known ahead of time. This implies that, when we first begin to study some aspect of software engineering, or a specific software project, we will probably have to use a large (e.g., 20 to 30, or more) number of different metrics. Later, analysis should point out the most useful metrics.

Metrics are almost always interrelated. Specifically, attempts to influence one metric usually have an impact on other metrics for the same person, process, or product.

To be useful, metrics must be gathered systematically and regularly -- preferably in an automated manner.

Metrics must be correlated with reality. This correlation must take place before meaningful decisions, based on the metrics, can be made.

Faulty analysis (statistical or otherwise) of metrics can render metrics useless, or even harmful.

To make meaningful metrics-based comparisons, both the similarities and dissimilarities of the people, processes, or products being compared must be known.

Those gathering metrics must be aware of the items that may influence the metrics they are gathering. For example, there are the "terrible H's," i.e., the Heisenberg effect and the Hawthorne effect.

Metrics can be harmful. More properly, metrics can be misused.

Object-oriented software engineering metrics are units of measurement that are used to characterize:

object-oriented software engineering products, e.g., designs, source code, and test cases,

object-oriented software engineering processes, e.g., the activities of analysis, designing, and coding, and

object-oriented software engineering people, e.g., the efficiency of an individual tester, or the productivity of an individual designer.

PHP Installation

What do You Need?

This tutorial will not explain how to install PHP, MySQL, or Apache Server.

If your server supports PHP - you don't need to do anything! You do not need to compile anything or install any extra tools - just create some .php files in your web directory - and the server will parse them for you. Most web hosts offer PHP support.

However, if your server does not support PHP, you must install PHP. Below is a link to a good tutorial from PHP.net on how to install PHP5:

http://www.php.net/manual/en/install.php
Download PHP

Download PHP for free here: http://www.php.net/downloads.php
Download MySQL Database

Download MySQL for free here: http://www.mysql.com/downloads/index.html
Download Apache Server

Download Apache for free here: http://httpd.apa

Introduction to PHP

What You Should Already Know

Before you continue you should have a basic understanding of the following:
HTML / XHTML
Some scripting knowledge

If you want to study these subjects first, find the tutorials on our Home page.
What is PHP?
PHP stands for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor
PHP is a server-side scripting language, like ASP
PHP scripts are executed on the server
PHP supports many databases (MySQL, Informix, Oracle, Sybase, Solid, PostgreSQL, Generic ODBC, etc.)
PHP is an open source software (OSS)
PHP is free to download and use
What is a PHP File?
PHP files may contain text, HTML tags and scripts
PHP files are returned to the browser as plain HTML
PHP files have a file extension of ".php", ".php3", or ".phtml"
What is MySQL?
MySQL is a database server
MySQL is ideal for both small and large applications
MySQL supports standard SQL
MySQL compiles on a number of platforms
MySQL is free to download and use
PHP + MySQL
PHP combined with MySQL are cross-platform (means that you can develop in Windows and serve on a Unix platform)
Why PHP?
PHP runs on different platforms (Windows, Linux, Unix, etc.)
PHP is compatible with almost all servers used today (Apache, IIS, etc.)
PHP is FREE to download from the official PHP resource: www.php.net
PHP is easy to learn and runs efficiently on the server side
Where to Start?
Install an Apache server on a Windows or Linux machine
Install PHP on a Windows or Linux machine
Install MySQL on a Windows or Linux machine

PHP Tutorial



PHP is a powerful server-side scripting language for creating dynamic and interactive websites.

PHP is the widely-used, free, and efficient alternative to competitors such as Microsoft's ASP. PHP is perfectly suited for Web development and can be embedded directly into the HTML code.

The PHP syntax is very similar to Perl and C. PHP is often used together with Apache (web server) on various operating systems. It also supports ISAPI and can be used with Microsoft's IIS on Windows.

XHTML - Why?

XHTML is a combination of HTML and XML (EXtensible Markup Language).

XHTML consists of all the elements in HTML 4.01 combined with the syntax of XML.
Why XHTML?

We have reached a point where many pages on the WWW contain "bad" HTML.

The following HTML code will work fine if you view it in a browser, even if it does not follow the HTML rules:



XML is a markup language where everything has to be marked up correctly, which results in "well-formed" documents.

XML was designed to describe data and HTML was designed to display data.

Today's market consists of different browser technologies, some browsers run Internet on computers, and some browsers run Internet on mobile phones and hand helds. The last-mentioned do not have the resources or power to interpret a "bad" markup language.

Therefore - by combining HTML and XML, and their strengths, we got a markup language that is useful now and in the future - XHTML.

XHTML pages can be read by all XML enabled devices AND while waiting for the rest of the world to upgrade to XML supported browsers, XHTML gives you the opportunity to write "well-formed" documents now, that work in all browsers and that are backward browser compatible !!!

Introduction To XHTML

XHTML is a stricter and cleaner version of HTML.
What You Should Already Know

Before you continue you should have a basic understanding of the following:
HTML and the basics of building web pages

If you want to study HTML first, please read our HTML tutorial.
What Is XHTML?
XHTML stands for EXtensible HyperText Markup Language
XHTML is aimed to replace HTML
XHTML is almost identical to HTML 4.01
XHTML is a stricter and cleaner version of HTML
XHTML is HTML defined as an XML application
XHTML is a W3C Recommendation
XHTML is a W3C Recommendation

XHTML 1.0 became a W3C Recommendation January 26, 2000.

W3C defines XHTML as the latest version of HTML. XHTML will gradually replace HTML.

Stay updated with the latest W3C recommendations in our W3C tutorial.
All New Browsers Support XHTML

XHTML is compatible with HTML 4.01.

All new browsers have support for XHTML.

XHTML Exam

Don't Let A Busy Schedule Ruin Your Career
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Study and train for your certificates when it is convenient
Study and train for your certificates from your own computer
Complete your studies in a few weeks
Take your exams over the Internet
Why Should You Become Certified?

Life-long learning are the keywords to your future success.

Do you want a career with a future? You should add regular updates to your skills and knowledge. Unless, you have already decided that your current skills and job are good enough for your future.

Knowledge is power, especially in the current job market. Documentation of your skills enables you to move upwards in your organization.

Getting a certificate proves your commitment to upgrade your skills, gives you the credibility needed for more responsibilities, larger projects, and a higher salary.

In addition, documented knowledge is often the key factor when hiring new personnel. Your certificate might advance your career or help you to start a new one.

Also have in mind that employees with certifications increase their company's chances of retaining old and getting new customers. You will do your company a favor getting certified. Expect your company to support you in this.
How Does It Work?

You prepare for your exams by studying - free of charge - online at W3Schools.

You study at your own speed, at any time, from your own computer or any other location.

You test your skills - free of charge - with W3Schools online quizzes.

You apply for your exam online by paying an exam fee.

You take your exam online, at any time, and from any location that is convenient for you.

HTML Summary



This tutorial has taught you how to use HTML to create your own web site.

HTML is the universal markup language for the Web. HTML lets you format text, add graphics, create links, input forms, frames and tables, etc., and save it all in a text file that any browser can read and display.

The key to HTML is the tags, which indicates what content is coming up.

For more information on HTML, please take a look at our HTML examples and our HTML reference.
Now You Know HTML, What's Next?

The next step is to learn XHTML and CSS.

XHTML

XHTML is the "new" HTML. The latest HTML recommendation is HTML 4.01. This is the last and final HTML version.

HTML will be replaced by XHTML, which is a stricter and cleaner version of HTML.

If you want to learn more about XHTML, please visit our XHTML tutorial.

CSS

CSS is used to control the style and layout of multiple Web pages all at once.

With CSS, all formatting can be removed from the HTML document and stored in a separate file.

CSS gives you total control of the layout, without messing up the document content.

To learn how to create style sheets, please visit our CSS tutorial.

The Head Element



The head element contains general information, also called meta-information, about a document. Meta means "information about".

You can say that meta-data means information about data, or meta-information means information about information.
Information Inside the Head Element

The elements inside the head element should not be displayed by a browser.

According to the HTML standard, only a few tags are legal inside the head section. These are: , , , , <style>, and <script>. <br /> <br />Look at the following illegal construct: <head> <br /> <p>This is some text</p> <br /></head> <br /> <br /> <br />In this case the browser has two options: <br />Display the text because it is inside a paragraph element <br />Hide the text because it is inside a head element <br /> <br />If you put an HTML element like <h1> or <p> inside a head element like this, most browsers will display it, even if it is illegal.</span> <div style='clear: both;'></div> </div> <div class='post-footer'> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-1'> <span class='post-author vcard'> Posted by <span class='fn' itemprop='author' itemscope='itemscope' itemtype='http://schema.org/Person'> <meta content='https://www.blogger.com/profile/12309791003951377157' itemprop='url'/> <a class='g-profile' href='https://www.blogger.com/profile/12309791003951377157' rel='author' title='author profile'> <span itemprop='name'>RAVI CHOPRA</span> </a> </span> </span> <span class='post-timestamp'> at <meta content='http://data-dump.blogspot.com/2008/04/head-element.html' itemprop='url'/> <a class='timestamp-link' href='https://data-dump.blogspot.com/2008/04/head-element.html' rel='bookmark' title='permanent link'><abbr class='published' itemprop='datePublished' title='2008-04-19T02:25:00-07:00'>2:25 AM</abbr></a> </span> <span class='post-comment-link'> <a class='comment-link' href='https://www.blogger.com/comment.g?blogID=161627700135822200&postID=7726953299748919039' onclick=''> No comments: </a> </span> <span class='post-icons'> <span class='item-control blog-admin pid-1724816456'> <a href='https://www.blogger.com/post-edit.g?blogID=161627700135822200&postID=7726953299748919039&from=pencil' title='Edit Post'> <img alt='' class='icon-action' height='18' src='https://resources.blogblog.com/img/icon18_edit_allbkg.gif' width='18'/> </a> </span> </span> <div class='post-share-buttons goog-inline-block'> </div> </div> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-2'> <span class='post-labels'> Labels: <a href='https://data-dump.blogspot.com/search/label/The%20Head%20Element' rel='tag'>The Head Element</a> </span> </div> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-3'> <span class='post-location'> </span> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class='post-outer'> <div class='post hentry uncustomized-post-template' itemprop='blogPost' itemscope='itemscope' itemtype='http://schema.org/BlogPosting'> <meta content='161627700135822200' itemprop='blogId'/> <meta content='4274807116209228639' itemprop='postId'/> <a name='4274807116209228639'></a> <h3 class='post-title entry-title' itemprop='name'> <a href='https://data-dump.blogspot.com/2008/04/why-use-html-40.html'>Why use HTML 4.0?</a> </h3> <div class='post-header'> <div class='post-header-line-1'></div> </div> <div class='post-body entry-content' id='post-body-4274807116209228639' itemprop='description articleBody'> <span style="font-weight:bold;">HTML 3.2 Was Very Wrong ! <br /> <br />The original HTML was never intended to contain tags for formatting a document. HTML tags were intended to define the content of the document like: <br /> <br /><p>This is a paragraph</p> <br /> <br /><h1>This is a heading</h1> <br /> <br />When tags like <font> and color attributes were added to the HTML 3.2 specification, it started a nightmare for web developers. Development of large web sites where fonts and color information had to be added to every single Web page, became a long, expensive and unduly painful process. <br />What is so Great About HTML 4.0 ? <br /> <br />In HTML 4.0 all formatting can be removed from the HTML document and stored in a separate style sheet. <br /> <br />Because HTML 4.0 separates the presentation from the document structure, we have what we always needed: Total control of presentation layout without messing up the document content. <br />What Should You do About it ? <br /> <br />Do not use presentation attributes inside your HTML tags if you can avoid it. Start using styles! Please read our CSS tutorial to learn about style sheets. <br /> <br />Do not use deprecated tags. Visit our complete HTML 4.01 Reference to see which tags and attributes that are deprecated. <br />Prepare Yourself for XHTML <br /> <br />XHTML is the "new" HTML. The most important thing you can do is to start writing valid HTML 4.01. Also start writing your tags in lower case. Always close your tag elements. Never end a paragraph without </p>. <br /> <br />NOTE: The official HTML 4.01 recommends the use of lower case tags. <br /> <br />If you want to read about how this web site was converted to XHTML, please visit our XHTML tutorial. <br />Validate Your HTML Files as HTML 4.01 <br /> <br />An HTML document is validated against a Document Type Definition (DTD). Before an HTML file can be properly validated, a correct DTD must be added as the first line of the file. <br /> <br />The HTML 4.01 Strict DTD includes elements and attributes that have not been deprecated or do not appear in framesets:</span> <div style='clear: both;'></div> </div> <div class='post-footer'> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-1'> <span class='post-author vcard'> Posted by <span class='fn' itemprop='author' itemscope='itemscope' itemtype='http://schema.org/Person'> <meta content='https://www.blogger.com/profile/12309791003951377157' itemprop='url'/> <a class='g-profile' href='https://www.blogger.com/profile/12309791003951377157' rel='author' title='author profile'> <span itemprop='name'>RAVI CHOPRA</span> </a> </span> </span> <span class='post-timestamp'> at <meta content='http://data-dump.blogspot.com/2008/04/why-use-html-40.html' itemprop='url'/> <a class='timestamp-link' href='https://data-dump.blogspot.com/2008/04/why-use-html-40.html' rel='bookmark' title='permanent link'><abbr class='published' itemprop='datePublished' title='2008-04-19T02:08:00-07:00'>2:08 AM</abbr></a> </span> <span class='post-comment-link'> <a class='comment-link' href='https://www.blogger.com/comment.g?blogID=161627700135822200&postID=4274807116209228639' onclick=''> No comments: </a> </span> <span class='post-icons'> <span class='item-control blog-admin pid-1724816456'> <a href='https://www.blogger.com/post-edit.g?blogID=161627700135822200&postID=4274807116209228639&from=pencil' title='Edit Post'> <img alt='' class='icon-action' height='18' src='https://resources.blogblog.com/img/icon18_edit_allbkg.gif' width='18'/> </a> </span> </span> <div class='post-share-buttons goog-inline-block'> </div> </div> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-2'> <span class='post-labels'> Labels: <a href='https://data-dump.blogspot.com/search/label/Why%20use%20HTML%204.0%3F' rel='tag'>Why use HTML 4.0?</a> </span> </div> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-3'> <span class='post-location'> </span> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div></div> <div class="date-outer"> <div class="date-posts"> <div class='post-outer'> <div class='post hentry uncustomized-post-template' itemprop='blogPost' itemscope='itemscope' itemtype='http://schema.org/BlogPosting'> <meta content='161627700135822200' itemprop='blogId'/> <meta content='4840822057163779' itemprop='postId'/> <a name='4840822057163779'></a> <h3 class='post-title entry-title' itemprop='name'> <a href='https://data-dump.blogspot.com/2008/04/html-character-entities.html'>HTML Character Entities</a> </h3> <div class='post-header'> <div class='post-header-line-1'></div> </div> <div class='post-body entry-content' id='post-body-4840822057163779' itemprop='description articleBody'> <span style="font-weight:bold;">Some characters like the < character, have a special meaning in HTML, and therefore cannot be used in the text.<br /><br />To display a less than sign (<) in HTML, we have to use a character entity.<br />Character Entities<br /><br />Some characters have a special meaning in HTML, like the less than sign (<) that defines the start of an HTML tag. If we want the browser to actually display these characters we must insert character entities in the HTML source.<br /><br />A character entity has three parts: an ampersand (&), an entity name or a # and an entity number, and finally a semicolon (;). <br /><br />To display a less than sign in an HTML document we must write: < or < <br /><br />The advantage of using a name instead of a number is that a name is easier to remember. The disadvantage is that not all browsers support the newest entity names, while the support for entity numbers is very good in almost all browsers.<br /><br />Note that the entities are case sensitive. <br /><br /><br /><br /><br />Non-breaking Space<br /><br />The most common character entity in HTML is the non-breaking space.<br /><br />Normally HTML will truncate spaces in your text. If you write 10 spaces in your text HTML will remove 9 of them. To add spaces to your text, use the   character entity.<br />The Most Common Character Entities:Result Description Entity Name Entity Number<br /> non-breaking space    <br />< less than < <<br />> greater than > ><br />& ampersand & &<br />" quotation mark " "<br />' apostrophe ' (does not work in IE) '<br /><br />Some Other Commonly Used Character Entities:Result Description Entity Name Entity Number<br />¢ cent ¢ ¢<br />£ pound £ £<br />¥ yen ¥ ¥<br />€ euro € €<br />§ section § §<br />© copyright © ©<br />® registered trademark ® ®<br />× multiplication × ×<br />÷ division ÷ ÷</span> <div style='clear: both;'></div> </div> <div class='post-footer'> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-1'> <span class='post-author vcard'> Posted by <span class='fn' itemprop='author' itemscope='itemscope' itemtype='http://schema.org/Person'> <meta content='https://www.blogger.com/profile/12309791003951377157' itemprop='url'/> <a class='g-profile' href='https://www.blogger.com/profile/12309791003951377157' rel='author' title='author profile'> <span itemprop='name'>RAVI CHOPRA</span> </a> </span> </span> <span class='post-timestamp'> at <meta content='http://data-dump.blogspot.com/2008/04/html-character-entities.html' itemprop='url'/> <a class='timestamp-link' href='https://data-dump.blogspot.com/2008/04/html-character-entities.html' rel='bookmark' title='permanent link'><abbr class='published' itemprop='datePublished' title='2008-04-18T01:58:00-07:00'>1:58 AM</abbr></a> </span> <span class='post-comment-link'> <a class='comment-link' href='https://www.blogger.com/comment.g?blogID=161627700135822200&postID=4840822057163779' onclick=''> No comments: </a> </span> <span class='post-icons'> <span class='item-control blog-admin pid-1724816456'> <a href='https://www.blogger.com/post-edit.g?blogID=161627700135822200&postID=4840822057163779&from=pencil' title='Edit Post'> <img alt='' class='icon-action' height='18' src='https://resources.blogblog.com/img/icon18_edit_allbkg.gif' width='18'/> </a> </span> </span> <div class='post-share-buttons goog-inline-block'> </div> </div> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-2'> <span class='post-labels'> Labels: <a href='https://data-dump.blogspot.com/search/label/HTML%20Character%20Entities' rel='tag'>HTML Character Entities</a> </span> </div> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-3'> <span class='post-location'> </span> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class='post-outer'> <div class='post hentry uncustomized-post-template' itemprop='blogPost' itemscope='itemscope' itemtype='http://schema.org/BlogPosting'> <meta content='161627700135822200' itemprop='blogId'/> <meta content='6604944162387268836' itemprop='postId'/> <a name='6604944162387268836'></a> <h3 class='post-title entry-title' itemprop='name'> <a href='https://data-dump.blogspot.com/2008/04/html-attributes.html'>HTML Attributes</a> </h3> <div class='post-header'> <div class='post-header-line-1'></div> </div> <div class='post-body entry-content' id='post-body-6604944162387268836' itemprop='description articleBody'> HTML Tag Attributes<br />HTML tags can have attributes. Attributes provide additional information to an HTML element.<br /><br />Attributes always come in name/value pairs like this: name="value".<br /><br />Attributes are always specified in the start tag of an HTML element.<br /><br /><br /><br />Use Lowercase Attributes<br /><br />Attributes and attribute values are case-insensitive. However, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) recommends lowercase attributes/attribute values in their HTML 4 recommendation, and XHTML demands lowercase attributes/attribute values.<br />Always Quote Attribute Values<br /><br />Attribute values should always be enclosed in quotes. Double style quotes are the most common, but single style quotes are also allowed.<br /><br />In some rare situations, like when the attribute value itself contains quotes, it is necessary to use single quotes:<br /><br />name='John "ShotGun" Nelson' <div style='clear: both;'></div> </div> <div class='post-footer'> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-1'> <span class='post-author vcard'> Posted by <span class='fn' itemprop='author' itemscope='itemscope' itemtype='http://schema.org/Person'> <meta content='https://www.blogger.com/profile/12309791003951377157' itemprop='url'/> <a class='g-profile' href='https://www.blogger.com/profile/12309791003951377157' rel='author' title='author profile'> <span itemprop='name'>RAVI CHOPRA</span> </a> </span> </span> <span class='post-timestamp'> at <meta content='http://data-dump.blogspot.com/2008/04/html-attributes.html' itemprop='url'/> <a class='timestamp-link' href='https://data-dump.blogspot.com/2008/04/html-attributes.html' rel='bookmark' title='permanent link'><abbr class='published' itemprop='datePublished' title='2008-04-18T01:56:00-07:00'>1:56 AM</abbr></a> </span> <span class='post-comment-link'> <a class='comment-link' href='https://www.blogger.com/comment.g?blogID=161627700135822200&postID=6604944162387268836' onclick=''> No comments: </a> </span> <span class='post-icons'> <span class='item-control blog-admin pid-1724816456'> <a href='https://www.blogger.com/post-edit.g?blogID=161627700135822200&postID=6604944162387268836&from=pencil' title='Edit Post'> <img alt='' class='icon-action' height='18' src='https://resources.blogblog.com/img/icon18_edit_allbkg.gif' width='18'/> </a> </span> </span> <div class='post-share-buttons goog-inline-block'> </div> </div> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-2'> <span class='post-labels'> Labels: <a href='https://data-dump.blogspot.com/search/label/HTML%20Attributes' rel='tag'>HTML Attributes</a> </span> </div> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-3'> <span class='post-location'> </span> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class='post-outer'> <div class='post hentry uncustomized-post-template' itemprop='blogPost' itemscope='itemscope' itemtype='http://schema.org/BlogPosting'> <meta content='161627700135822200' itemprop='blogId'/> <meta content='2345231680910694631' itemprop='postId'/> <a name='2345231680910694631'></a> <h3 class='post-title entry-title' itemprop='name'> <a href='https://data-dump.blogspot.com/2008/04/basic-html-tags.html'>Basic HTML Tags</a> </h3> <div class='post-header'> <div class='post-header-line-1'></div> </div> <div class='post-body entry-content' id='post-body-2345231680910694631' itemprop='description articleBody'> <span style="font-weight:bold;">The most important tags in HTML are tags that define headings, paragraphs and line breaks. <br /> <br />The best way to learn HTML is to work with examples. We have created a very nice HTML editor for you. With this editor, you can edit the HTML source code if you like, and click on a test button to view the result. <br /> <br /> <br />Headings <br /> <br />Headings are defined with the <h1> to <h6> tags. <h1> defines the largest heading. <h6> defines the smallest heading.<h1>This is a heading</h1> <br /><h2>This is a heading</h2> <br /><h3>This is a heading</h3> <br /><h4>This is a heading</h4> <br /><h5>This is a heading</h5> <br /><h6>This is a heading</h6> <br /> <br /> <br />HTML automatically adds an extra blank line before and after a heading. <br />Paragraphs <br /> <br />Paragraphs are defined with the <p> tag.<p>This is a paragraph</p> <br /><p>This is another paragraph</p> <br /> <br /> <br />HTML automatically adds an extra blank line before and after a paragraph. <br />Don't Forget the Closing Tag <br /> <br />You might have noticed that paragraphs can be written without end tags </p>:<p>This is a paragraph <br /><p>This is another paragraph <br /> <br /> <br />The example above will work in most browsers, but don't rely on it. Future version of HTML will not allow you to skip ANY end tags. <br /> <br />Closing all HTML elements with an end tag is a future-proof way of writing HTML. It also makes the code easier to understand (read and browse) when you mark both where an element starts and where it ends. <br />Line Breaks <br /> <br />The <br> tag is used when you want to break a line, but don't want to start a new paragraph. The <br> tag forces a line break wherever you place it.<p>This <br> is a para<br>graph with line breaks</p> <br /> <br /> <br />Try it yourself <br /> <br />The <br> tag is an empty tag. It has no end tag like </br>, since a closing tag doesn't make any sense. <br /><br> or <br /> <br /> <br />More and more often you will see the <br> tag written like this: <br /> <br /> <br />Because the <br> tag has no end tag (or closing tag), it breaks one of the rules for future HTML (the XML based XHTML), namely that all elements must be closed. <br /> <br />Writing it like <br /> is a future proof way of closing (or ending) the tag inside the opening tag, accepted by both HTML and XML. <br />Comments in HTML <br /> <br />The comment tag is used to insert a comment in the HTML source code. A comment will be ignored by the browser. You can use comments to explain your code, which can help you when you edit the source code at a later date.<!-- This is a comment --> <br /> <br /> <br />Note that you need an exclamation point after the opening bracket, but not before the closing bracket. <br />Recap on HTML Elements <br />Each HTML element has an element name (body, h1, p, br) <br />The start tag is the name surrounded by angle brackets: <h1> <br />The end tag is a slash and the name surrounded by angle brackets </h1> <br />The element content occurs between the start tag and the end tag <br />Some HTML elements have no content <br />Some HTML elements have no end tag <br />Basic Notes - Useful Tips <br /> <br />When you write HTML text, you can never be sure how the text is displayed in another browser. Some people have large computer displays, some have small. The text will be reformatted every time the user resizes his window. Never try to format the text in your editor by adding empty lines and spaces to the text. <br /> <br />HTML will truncate the spaces in your text. Any number of spaces count as one. Some extra information: In HTML a new line counts as one space. <br /> <br />Using empty paragraphs <p> to insert blank lines is a bad habit. Use the <br> tag instead. (But don't use the <br> tag to create lists. Wait until you have learned about HTML lists.) <br /> <br />HTML automatically adds an extra blank line before and after some elements, like before and after a paragraph, and before and after a heading. <br /> <br />We use a horizontal rule (the <hr> tag), to separate the sections in our tutorials <br /> <br /> <br />Basic HTML Tags <br /> <br />If you lookup the basic HTML tags in the reference below, you will see that the reference contains additional information about tag attributes. <br /> <br />You will learn more about HTML tag attributes in the next chapter of this tutorial. <br /> <br /> <br />Tag Description <br /><html> Defines an HTML document <br /><body> Defines the document's body <br /><h1> to <h6> Defines header 1 to header 6 <br /><p> Defines a paragraph <br /><br> Inserts a single line break <br /><hr> Defines a horizontal rule <br /><!--> Defines a comment <br /> <br /> <br /></span> <div style='clear: both;'></div> </div> <div class='post-footer'> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-1'> <span class='post-author vcard'> Posted by <span class='fn' itemprop='author' itemscope='itemscope' itemtype='http://schema.org/Person'> <meta content='https://www.blogger.com/profile/12309791003951377157' itemprop='url'/> <a class='g-profile' href='https://www.blogger.com/profile/12309791003951377157' rel='author' title='author profile'> <span itemprop='name'>RAVI CHOPRA</span> </a> </span> </span> <span class='post-timestamp'> at <meta content='http://data-dump.blogspot.com/2008/04/basic-html-tags.html' itemprop='url'/> <a class='timestamp-link' href='https://data-dump.blogspot.com/2008/04/basic-html-tags.html' rel='bookmark' title='permanent link'><abbr class='published' itemprop='datePublished' title='2008-04-18T01:54:00-07:00'>1:54 AM</abbr></a> </span> <span class='post-comment-link'> <a class='comment-link' href='https://www.blogger.com/comment.g?blogID=161627700135822200&postID=2345231680910694631' onclick=''> No comments: </a> </span> <span class='post-icons'> <span class='item-control blog-admin pid-1724816456'> <a href='https://www.blogger.com/post-edit.g?blogID=161627700135822200&postID=2345231680910694631&from=pencil' title='Edit Post'> <img alt='' class='icon-action' height='18' src='https://resources.blogblog.com/img/icon18_edit_allbkg.gif' width='18'/> </a> </span> </span> <div class='post-share-buttons goog-inline-block'> </div> </div> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-2'> <span class='post-labels'> Labels: <a href='https://data-dump.blogspot.com/search/label/Basic%20HTML%20Tags' rel='tag'>Basic HTML Tags</a> </span> </div> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-3'> <span class='post-location'> </span> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class='post-outer'> <div class='post hentry uncustomized-post-template' itemprop='blogPost' itemscope='itemscope' itemtype='http://schema.org/BlogPosting'> <meta content='161627700135822200' itemprop='blogId'/> <meta content='9098574238138879026' itemprop='postId'/> <a name='9098574238138879026'></a> <h3 class='post-title entry-title' itemprop='name'> <a href='https://data-dump.blogspot.com/2008/04/html-elements.html'>HTML Elements</a> </h3> <div class='post-header'> <div class='post-header-line-1'></div> </div> <div class='post-body entry-content' id='post-body-9098574238138879026' itemprop='description articleBody'> <span style="font-weight:bold;">HTML documents are text files made up of HTML elements. <br /> <br />HTML elements are defined using HTML tags. <br />HTML Tags <br />HTML tags are used to mark-up HTML elements <br />HTML tags are surrounded by the two characters < and > <br />The surrounding characters are called angle brackets <br />HTML tags normally come in pairs like <b> and </b> <br />The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag <br />The text between the start and end tags is the element content <br />HTML tags are not case sensitive, <b> means the same as <B> <br />HTML Elements <br /> <br />Remember the HTML example from the previous page:<html> <br /><head> <br /><title>Title of page


This is my first homepage. This text is bold




This is an HTML element:This text is bold


The HTML element starts with a start tag:
The content of the HTML element is: This text is bold
The HTML element ends with an end tag:


The purpose of the tag is to define an HTML element that should be displayed as bold.

This is also an HTML element:
This is my first homepage. This text is bold



This HTML element starts with the start tag , and ends with the end tag .

The purpose of the tag is to define the HTML element that contains the body of the HTML document.
Why do We Use Lowercase Tags?

We have just said that HTML tags are not case sensitive: means the same as . If you surf the Web, you will notice that plenty of web sites use uppercase HTML tags in their source code. We always use lowercase tags. Why?

If you want to follow the latest web standards, you should always use lowercase tags. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) recommends lowercase tags in their HTML 4 recommendation, and XHTML (the next generation HTML) demands lowercase tags.

Learn HTML

What is an HTML File?


HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language
An HTML file is a text file containing small markup tags
The markup tags tell the Web browser how to display the page
An HTML file must have an htm or html file extension
An HTML file can be created using a simple text editor
Do You Want to Try It?

If you are running Windows, start Notepad.

If you are on a Mac, start SimpleText.

In OSX start TextEdit and change the following preferences: Open the "Format" menu and select "Plain text" instead of "Rich text". Then open the "Preferences" window under the "Text Edit" menu and select "Ignore rich text commands in HTML files". Your HTML code will probably not work if you do not change the preferences above!

Type in the following text:

Title of page


This is my first homepage. This text is bold




Save the file as "mypage.htm".

Start your Internet browser. Select "Open" (or "Open Page") in the File menu of your browser. A dialog box will appear. Select "Browse" (or "Choose File") and locate the HTML file you just created - "mypage.htm" - select it and click "Open". Now you should see an address in the dialog box, for example "C:\MyDocuments\mypage.htm". Click OK, and the browser will display the page.
Example Explained

The first tag in your HTML document is . This tag tells your browser that this is the start of an HTML document. The last tag in your document is . This tag tells your browser that this is the end of the HTML document.

The text between the tag and the tag is header information. Header information is not displayed in the browser window.

The text between the tags is the title of your document. The title is displayed in your browser's caption. <br /> <br />The text between the <body> tags is the text that will be displayed in your browser. <br /> <br />The text between the <b> and </b> tags will be displayed in a bold font. <br />HTM or HTML Extension? <br /> <br />When you save an HTML file, you can use either the .htm or the .html extension. We have used .htm in our examples. It might be a bad habit inherited from the past when some of the commonly used software only allowed three letter extensions. <br /> <br />With newer software we think it will be perfectly safe to use .html. <br />Note on HTML Editors: <br /> <br />You can easily edit HTML files using a WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get) editor like FrontPage or Dreamweaver, instead of writing your markup tags in a plain text file. <br /> <br />However, if you want to be a skillful Web developer, we strongly recommend that you use a plain text editor to learn your primer HTML.</span> <div style='clear: both;'></div> </div> <div class='post-footer'> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-1'> <span class='post-author vcard'> Posted by <span class='fn' itemprop='author' itemscope='itemscope' itemtype='http://schema.org/Person'> <meta content='https://www.blogger.com/profile/12309791003951377157' itemprop='url'/> <a class='g-profile' href='https://www.blogger.com/profile/12309791003951377157' rel='author' title='author profile'> <span itemprop='name'>RAVI CHOPRA</span> </a> </span> </span> <span class='post-timestamp'> at <meta content='http://data-dump.blogspot.com/2008/04/learn-html.html' itemprop='url'/> <a class='timestamp-link' href='https://data-dump.blogspot.com/2008/04/learn-html.html' rel='bookmark' title='permanent link'><abbr class='published' itemprop='datePublished' title='2008-04-18T01:49:00-07:00'>1:49 AM</abbr></a> </span> <span class='post-comment-link'> <a class='comment-link' href='https://www.blogger.com/comment.g?blogID=161627700135822200&postID=2381052939108450282' onclick=''> No comments: </a> </span> <span class='post-icons'> <span class='item-control blog-admin pid-1724816456'> <a href='https://www.blogger.com/post-edit.g?blogID=161627700135822200&postID=2381052939108450282&from=pencil' title='Edit Post'> <img alt='' class='icon-action' height='18' src='https://resources.blogblog.com/img/icon18_edit_allbkg.gif' width='18'/> </a> </span> </span> <div class='post-share-buttons goog-inline-block'> </div> </div> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-2'> <span class='post-labels'> Labels: <a href='https://data-dump.blogspot.com/search/label/Learn%20HTML' rel='tag'>Learn HTML</a> </span> </div> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-3'> <span class='post-location'> </span> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class='post-outer'> <div class='post hentry uncustomized-post-template' itemprop='blogPost' itemscope='itemscope' itemtype='http://schema.org/BlogPosting'> <meta content='161627700135822200' itemprop='blogId'/> <meta content='1227351323823928930' itemprop='postId'/> <a name='1227351323823928930'></a> <h3 class='post-title entry-title' itemprop='name'> <a href='https://data-dump.blogspot.com/2008/04/java-criticism.html'>Java criticism</a> </h3> <div class='post-header'> <div class='post-header-line-1'></div> </div> <div class='post-body entry-content' id='post-body-1227351323823928930' itemprop='description articleBody'> <span style="font-weight:bold;">Java programming language was intended to serve as a novel way to manage software complexity. Many consider Java technology to deliver reasonably well on this promise. However, Java is not without flaws, and it does not universally accommodate all programming styles, environments, or requirements.<br /><br />Class path<br /><br />Running a Java program requires all third party supporting libraries to be in the class path. This can be an obstacle to portability, because its syntax is platform-specific: Windows-based systems use backslashes to mark subdirectories and semicolons to separate entries, whereas all other platforms use forward slashes to mark subdirectories and colons to separate entries.<br /><br /><br />It is also necessary for each .jar or .zip archive required to be explicitly named in the class path. Java provides a way around this by allowing directories listed in the class path to end in an asterisk (*), which will be expanded to the names of all files ending in .jar or .JAR within the directory. However, such an entry does not match .zip or .class files within that directory.<br /><br />License<br /><br />Sun Java's proprietary nature gave it a controversial position in the free software community. Because Sun's implementation of Java was not free software, it could not be included in projects that require a free software or GPL-compatible license, such as Debian main, the $100 laptop, and Fedora Core. Sun announced in JavaOne 2006 that Java will become open source software. The statement was issued by Sun Software Executive Vice President Rich Green: "It's not a question of whether, it's a question of how, and so we'll go do this." <br /><br /><br /><br />In July 2006, Sun's CTO Robert Brewin commented that Java will be partially open source by June 2007 but the entire platform will take more time to be fully open source. On November 13, 2006, Sun announced that its standard edition Java runtime environment will be released under the GPL by March of 2007. Its source code will be available under the GPL. According to Richard Stallman, this will mean an end to the Java trap. Mark Shuttleworth called the initial press announcement "a real milestone for the free software community."<br /><br />Resource management<br /><br /><br /><br />While Java does manage memory, it does not manage all resources, such as JDBC database connections; these must be released just as memory would need to be in C++.<br /><br />Memory management<br /><br />Java takes care of memory management. This was done as it makes it harder (but not impossible) for the programmer to create problems such as memory leaks. Java always allocates objects on the heap (unless optimized to the stack or registers by the JIT compiler) and local variables on the stack or in registers. This makes Java less flexible than C++, which allows programmers to choose where objects are allocated.<br /><br /><br />The garbage collector controls when objects are deleted from memory. Java does not allow programmers to guarantee when garbage collection happens (even with System.gc()), they cannot hold off garbage collection, and they cannot delete one particular object. While this makes programming much simpler and reduces memory leaks, it lacks the flexibility that can, in some cases, result in a more efficient handling of memory. Lower-level languages such as C or assembly language provide this flexibility.<br /><br />While many programs, such as those written in C++, tend to fall prey to memory leaks, this is not the whole story. Other resource leaks such as file handles, database and network connections are still likely, especially when exceptions are thrown. However, where C++ has the RAII idiom to address both cases, Java programmers need to remember to release resources in finally clauses and must have a good understanding of which resources Java will release and which they must release.<br /><br />Primitives vs. objects / Autoboxing<br /><br />Java designers decided not to implement certain features present in other languages (including multiple inheritance, operator overloading, and tuples).<br /><br />When generics were added to Java 5.0, there was already a large framework of classes (many of which were already deprecated), so generics were chosen to be implemented using erasure to allow backwards compatibility and preservation of these existing classes. This limited the features that could be provided by this addition as compared to other languages.<br /><br />Java's primitive types are not objects. Primitive types hold their values in the stack rather than being references to values. This was done for performance reasons. Because of this, Java is not considered to be a pure object-oriented programming language and this makes reflection more complicated. However, Java 5.0 supports automatic conversion (autoboxing) of primitive data types to corresponding object form wherever required, during compilation. When autounboxing, a null pointer exception may be thrown. Since this operation occurs implicitly (without a cast or method call), this unchecked exception may not be obvious by inspection of the line of code.<br /><br />Non-Virtual methods<br /><br />Java provides no way to make methods non-virtual (although they can be "sealed" by using the final modifier to disallow overriding). This means that there is no way to let derived classes define a new, unrelated method with the same name. This can be a problem when a base class is designed by a different person, and a new version introduces a method with the same name and signature as some method already present in the derived class. This means that the method in the derived class will implicitly override the method in the base class, even though that was not the intent of the designers of either class. To partially accommodate for these versioning problems, Java 5.0 introduced the @Override annotation, but to preserve backwards compatibility it could not be made compulsory by default.<br /><br />Single paradigm<br /><br />Java is predominantly a single-paradigm language. The addition of static imports in Java 5.0 accommodates the procedural paradigm better than earlier versions of Java.<br /><br />Exception handling<br /><br />Java embraced the concept of exception specifications from C++ where they were optional, but made throws clauses mandatory for any checked exception. While this can be a benefit for small systems, there is not universal agreement that using checked exceptions is a benefit for larger systems. In particular, "higher level" code is often not interested in errors thrown by "lower level" code (eg: NamingException). The coder of the naming classes must make a choice: either force higher level code to deal with naming exceptions as checked exceptions, or allow them to "bubble up" through his own low-level code without compile-time checks.<br /><br />Closure<br /><br />Finally, while anonymous inner classes provide a basic form of closures, they are not complete and require referenced variables to either be class fields or declared "final". The rationale behind this is that it allows JVM implementors to choose a stack model for variable lifetimes, so that a variable scope is removed when exited, thus preventing real closures. In addition, when using - for instance - "Runnable" as a closure, one has to declare the "run" method and put the code in that: you cannot simply put some code in braces and pass it around.<br /><br />Floating point arithmetic<br /><br />While Java's floating point arithmetic is largely based on IEEE 754 (Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic), certain features are not supported even when using the "strictfp" modifier, such as Exception Flags and Directed Roundings — capabilities mandated by IEEE Standard 754. Many so-called "Java gotchas" are not problems with Java per se, but problems that are inevitable whenever using floating point arithmetic.<br /><br />Look and feel<br /><br />The look and feel of GUI applications written in Java using the Swing platform is often different from native applications. While programmers can choose to use the AWT toolkit that displays native widgets (and thus look like the operating platform), the AWT toolkit is unable to meet advanced GUI programming needs by wrapping around advanced widgets and not sacrificing portability across the various supported platforms, each of which have vastly different APIs especially for higher-level widgets.<br /><br />The Swing toolkit--written completely in Java--both creates the problem of having a different look and feel from native applications, and avoids the problem of being limited by native toolkit capabilities because it reimplements widgets using only the most basic drawing mechanisms that are guaranteed available on all platforms. Unfortunately, the default installations of the JRE (as of August 2006) do not use the system's "native" look and feel, instead defaulting to the built-in Metal Look and Feel. If the programmer doesn't take care to set the native look and feel, users will have applications whose appearance is vastly different from that of their native applications. Apple Computer's own optimized version of the Java Runtime, which is included within the Mac OS X distribution, by default does set the default and implements its "Aqua" look-and-feel, giving Swing applications on the Macintosh a similar appearance to native software. Even in this environment, the programmer must still do some extra work to ensure that that application looks like an Aqua one (for example, they must set system properties to ensure the menubar is rendered in the OS X menubar and not in the application window as it would be on other platforms).<br /><br />Performance<br /><br />It is impossible to make any generalization about the performance of Java programs, because runtime performance is affected much more by the quality of the compiler or JVM than by any intrinsic properties of the language itself. Java bytecode can either be interpreted at run time by a virtual machine, or it can be compiled at load time or runtime into machine code which runs directly on the computer's hardware. Interpretation is slower than native execution, and compilation at load time or runtime has an initial performance penalty for the compilation.<br /><br />Lack of language features<br /><br />There are a few language requirements which incur an unavoidable time penalty, although these features are not unique to Java. Among these are array bounds checking, run-time type checking, and virtual function indirection (although each of these can in some situations be avoided by an optimizing compiler). Also the lack of features can affect performance. For example, Java does not have arrays of structures or a true multi-dimensional array, but only an array of references to objects or further arrays. Nor does Java allow returning more than one value from a function without using an object. The net result is that Java code makes more heap allocations than well-written code in some other languages.<br /><br />Garbage collection<br /><br />The use of a garbage collector to automatically delete objects adds overhead compared to manual deallocation and can have a positive or negative impact, or no discernible impact at all, on performance depending upon the garbage collector implementation and the characteristics of the application's use of objects. With the modern generational garbage collectors used in many JVMs, many applications actually experience greater performance because of faster allocation and deallocation algorithms.<br /><br />Byte code vs. native compilation<br /><br />Relative performance of JIT compilers as compared to native compilers can be quite close, and is often a subject of debate. The JIT compilation stage may be time consuming, which is inconvenient for applications that are short-lived and/or contain large amounts of code. Once compiled to native code, however, the performance of the program can be comparable to that achieved by a native compiler, even on numerical tasks. Although Java does not support manual inlining of method calls, many JIT compilers perform this optimization at load time and can exploit information from the runtime environment to guide more effective transformations, such as profile-directed inlining. Dynamic recompilation, as provided by Sun's HotSpot JVM, can exceed the performance of the static compilation available in most other languages by exploiting information that is only available at runtime.<br /><br />Hardware interfacing<br /><br />Because Java was designed with an emphasis on security and portability, it does not support direct access to the machine architecture and address space. This means working directly with a specific piece of hardware such as a scanner, digital camera, audio recorder, video capture, or virtually any hardware that requires direct memory space control (typically those pieces or hardware installed with drivers), cannot easily be accomplished with Java. An illustration of this issue is seen in version 1.0 of Java as it was not possible to access a printer because the interface code to the various printer drivers was not included in this first JVM.<br /><br />Interfacing with native code<br /><br />Clients side or server systems that need to "talk" to the hardware must implement a hybrid solution using Java and C/C++ or assembly language via the Java Native Interface (JNI) libraries to link native code to the Java libraries. An alternate solution is to code the hardware software component in its native C/C++/assembler language and then pass the data via files, databases or a shared memory interface, although this is not an ideal solution.<br /><br />Using the JNI technique introduces many possible inconsistencies such as: machine dependency, potential deadlock situations, memory allocation leaks, and possibly poor application performance, not to mention code complexity of needing to maintain two different code bases. However, it must be noted that it is a common case for other Virtual machine languages, as for example the .NET Framework Common Language Runtime (see Platform Invocation Services).<br /><br />Inconsistent JVM implementations<br /><br />Java is a bytecode language that runs on top of the JVM; ultimately the compatibility of the language and the ability to have it run across different platforms is dependent on the stability and version of the JVM. While Java is touted as running on a large variety of systems, the most up to date JVM (and JRE) are only those actively updated for Windows, Linux and Solaris. HP (such as Java for HP-UX) and IBM (for MVS, AIX, OS/400) provide their own implementations for their family of platforms but do not always mirror the latest Sun releases. Other JVM implementations usually follow, but sometimes lag in months or years with the more common implementations and therefore introduce compatibility issues.</span> <div style='clear: both;'></div> </div> <div class='post-footer'> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-1'> <span class='post-author vcard'> Posted by <span class='fn' itemprop='author' itemscope='itemscope' itemtype='http://schema.org/Person'> <meta content='https://www.blogger.com/profile/12309791003951377157' itemprop='url'/> <a class='g-profile' href='https://www.blogger.com/profile/12309791003951377157' rel='author' title='author profile'> <span itemprop='name'>RAVI CHOPRA</span> </a> </span> </span> <span class='post-timestamp'> at <meta content='http://data-dump.blogspot.com/2008/04/java-criticism.html' itemprop='url'/> <a class='timestamp-link' href='https://data-dump.blogspot.com/2008/04/java-criticism.html' rel='bookmark' title='permanent link'><abbr class='published' itemprop='datePublished' title='2008-04-18T01:40:00-07:00'>1:40 AM</abbr></a> </span> <span class='post-comment-link'> <a class='comment-link' href='https://www.blogger.com/comment.g?blogID=161627700135822200&postID=1227351323823928930' onclick=''> No comments: </a> </span> <span class='post-icons'> <span class='item-control blog-admin pid-1724816456'> <a href='https://www.blogger.com/post-edit.g?blogID=161627700135822200&postID=1227351323823928930&from=pencil' title='Edit Post'> <img alt='' class='icon-action' height='18' src='https://resources.blogblog.com/img/icon18_edit_allbkg.gif' width='18'/> </a> </span> </span> <div class='post-share-buttons goog-inline-block'> </div> </div> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-2'> <span class='post-labels'> Labels: <a href='https://data-dump.blogspot.com/search/label/Java%20criticism' rel='tag'>Java criticism</a> </span> </div> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-3'> <span class='post-location'> </span> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class='post-outer'> <div class='post hentry uncustomized-post-template' itemprop='blogPost' itemscope='itemscope' itemtype='http://schema.org/BlogPosting'> <meta content='161627700135822200' itemprop='blogId'/> <meta content='5003029341099793971' itemprop='postId'/> <a name='5003029341099793971'></a> <h3 class='post-title entry-title' itemprop='name'> <a href='https://data-dump.blogspot.com/2008/04/java-applet.html'>Java applet</a> </h3> <div class='post-header'> <div class='post-header-line-1'></div> </div> <div class='post-body entry-content' id='post-body-5003029341099793971' itemprop='description articleBody'> <span style="font-weight:bold;">A Java applet is an applet delivered in the form of Java bytecode. Java applets can run in a Web browser using a Java Virtual Machine (JVM), or in Sun's AppletViewer, a stand alone tool to test applets. Java applets were introduced in the first version of the Java language in 1995. Java applets are usually written in the Java programming language but they can also be written in other languages that compile to Java bytecode such as Jython.<br /><br /><br /><br />Applets are used to provide interactive features to web applications that cannot be provided by HTML. Since Java's bytecode is platform independent, Java applets can be executed by browsers for many platforms, including Windows, Unix, Mac OS and Linux. There are open source tools like applet2app which can be used to convert an applet to a stand alone Java application/windows executable. This has the advantage of running a Java applet in offline mode without the need for internet browser software.<br /><br /><br /><br />A Java Servlet is sometimes informally compared to be "like" a server-side applet, but it is different in its language, functions, and in each of the characteristics described here about applets.<br /><br /><br /><br />Technical information<br /><br />Java applets are executed in a sandbox by most web browsers, preventing them from accessing local data. The code of the applet is downloaded from a web server and the browser either embeds the applet into a web page or opens a new window showing the applet's user interface. The applet can be displayed on the web page by making use of the deprecated applet HTML element or the recommended object element. This specifies the applet's source and the applet's location statistics.<br /><br />A Java applet extends the class java.applet.Applet, or in the case of a Swing applet, javax.swing.JApplet. The class must override methods from the applet class to set up a user interface inside itself (Applet is a descendant of Panel which is a descendant of Container).<br /><br /><br /><br />Advantages of applets<br /><br />A Java applet can have any or all of the following advantages:<br /><br />* it is simple to make it work on Windows, Mac OS and Linux, i.e. to make it cross platform<br />* the same applet can work on "all" installed versions of Java at the same time, rather than just the latest plug-in version only. However, if an applet requires a later version of the JRE the client will be forced wait during the large download.<br />* it runs in a sandbox, so the user does not need to trust the code, so it can work without security approval<br />* it is supported by most web browsers<br />* it will cache in most web browsers, so will be quick to load when returning to a web page<br />* it can have full access to the machine it is running on if the user agrees<br />* it can improve with use: after a first applet is run, the JVM is already running and starts quickly, benefiting regular users of Java<br />* it can run at a comparable (but generally slower) speed to other compiled languages such as C++<br />* it can be a real time application<br />* it can move the work from the server to the client, making a web solution more scalable with the number of users/clients<br /><br />Disadvantages of applets<br /><br />A Java applet is open to any of the following disadvantages:<br /><br />* it requires the Java plug-in, which isn't available by default on all web browsers<br />* it can't start up until the Java Virtual Machine is running, and this may have significant startup time the first time it is used<br />* if it is uncached, it must be downloaded (usually over the internet), and this takes time<br />* it is considered more difficult to build and design a good user interface with applets than with HTML-based technologies<br />* if untrusted, it has severely limited access to the user's system - in particular having no direct access to the client's disc or clipboard<br />* some organizations only allow software installed by the administrators. As a result, many users cannot view applets by default.<br />* applets may require a specific JRE.<br /><br />Compatibility issues<br /><br />Sun has made a considerable effort to ensure compatibility is maintained between Java versions as they evolve. For example, Microsoft's Internet Explorer, the most popular web browser since the late 1990s, used to ship with Microsoft's own JVM as the default. The MSJVM had some extra non-Java features added which, if used, would prevent MSJVM applets from running on Sun's Java (but not the other way round). Sun sued for breach of trademark, as the point of Java was that there should be no proprietary extensions and that code should work everywhere. Development of MSJVM was frozen by a legal settlement, leaving many users with an extremely outdated Java virtual machine. Later, in October 2001, MS stopped including Java with Windows, and for some years it has been left to the computer manufacturers to ship Java independently of the OS. Most new machines now ship with official Sun Java.<br /><br />Some browsers (notably Firefox) do not do a good job of handling height=100% on applets which makes it difficult to make an applet fill most of the browser window (Javascript can, with difficulty, be used for this). Having the applet create its own main window is not a good solution either, as this leads to a large chance of the applet getting terminated unintentionally and leaves the browser window as a largely useless extra window.<br /><br />Alternatives<br /><br />Alternative technologies exist (for example, DHTML and Flash) that satisfy some of the scope of what is possible with an applet.<br /><br />Another alternative to applets for client side Java is Java Web Start, which runs outside the browser. In addition to the features available to applets, a simple permissions box can give Java Web Start programs read and/or write access to specified files stored on the client, and to the client's clipboard.</span> <div style='clear: both;'></div> </div> <div class='post-footer'> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-1'> <span class='post-author vcard'> Posted by <span class='fn' itemprop='author' itemscope='itemscope' itemtype='http://schema.org/Person'> <meta content='https://www.blogger.com/profile/12309791003951377157' itemprop='url'/> <a class='g-profile' href='https://www.blogger.com/profile/12309791003951377157' rel='author' title='author profile'> <span itemprop='name'>RAVI CHOPRA</span> </a> </span> </span> <span class='post-timestamp'> at <meta content='http://data-dump.blogspot.com/2008/04/java-applet.html' itemprop='url'/> <a class='timestamp-link' href='https://data-dump.blogspot.com/2008/04/java-applet.html' rel='bookmark' title='permanent link'><abbr class='published' itemprop='datePublished' title='2008-04-18T01:40:00-07:00'>1:40 AM</abbr></a> </span> <span class='post-comment-link'> <a class='comment-link' href='https://www.blogger.com/comment.g?blogID=161627700135822200&postID=5003029341099793971' onclick=''> No comments: </a> </span> <span class='post-icons'> <span class='item-control blog-admin pid-1724816456'> <a href='https://www.blogger.com/post-edit.g?blogID=161627700135822200&postID=5003029341099793971&from=pencil' title='Edit Post'> <img alt='' class='icon-action' height='18' src='https://resources.blogblog.com/img/icon18_edit_allbkg.gif' width='18'/> </a> </span> </span> <div class='post-share-buttons goog-inline-block'> </div> </div> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-2'> <span class='post-labels'> Labels: <a href='https://data-dump.blogspot.com/search/label/Java%20applet' rel='tag'>Java applet</a> </span> </div> <div class='post-footer-line post-footer-line-3'> <span class='post-location'> </span> </div> 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